Following James II being overthrown in the Glorious Revolution, he sought refuge in Ireland. In Ireland James II had more support. His Catholicism saw many sympathise with him. This led to conflict between the ruling English protestants and the Catholic majority in Ireland. The British in Ireland at the time saw James’ presence there as a threat. It was a base from which he could launch counter revolution. As the Irish support for James did not dwindle, William of Orange decided to crush opposition. This led to English and Irish forces engaging with Irish supporters of James in the Williamite War.
King James II’s support in Ireland
Following the Glorious Revolution James II had fled to Ireland. Here he retained support from a majority. The Anglican Tory elite in England were wary of this. James had attempted to promote Catholics within the English Parliament, being in Ireland could only mean an intention to use force to try and reclaim the throne.
Jacobite ally in France
In Europe James II had a powerful ally in Louis IX of France. Louis was promoting schemes to undermine Protestantism, to the extent that even the Pope was critical of how far he was going to protect Catholicism. Louis IX persuaded James to travel to Ireland to lead a rebellion against the Glorious Revolution. A parliament was called in Dublin upon his return. Here, the Catholic nobility attainted Williamites and overturned the 1653 Settlement.
This was a major challenge from the Irish to William. It was met by a British response of force. His supporters in and around Dublin were relieved and then in 1690 William himself arrived in Ireland to lead the war against James’ supporters. The war in Ireland ended with the Treaty of Limerick in 1691. A wider war that began at the same time against the French was concluded in 1697.
William’s victory was largely secured through defeating the Jacobites at the Battle of the Boyne. This victory led to James fleeing to France. However the initial peace terms that were offered by William at Finglas were severe and the Jacobites chose to fight on. A Jacobite victory at Killiecrankie was followed by a success at the first siege of Limerick. Williamite forces then undertook a second siege of Limerick during which the Irish defenders overthrew their French commanders to open up peace talks. This resulted in the Treaty of Limerick which brought the Williamite Wars to a close.
Consequences of the Williamite War
William had secured Ireland for his crown. James II lived in exile in France. His presence there led to it becoming a centre for opposition to William and Mary’s rule but for the time being at least it resulted in no major uprisings, though the Jacobites did rebel again later.
In Ireland the victory of the Williamites resulted in the dominance of protestant politicians for the next hundred or so years. On the continent the war in Ireland had brought England into an alliance against France but at a great cost. Louis IX had intended to destablise Britain politically for his own ends.
The political consequences of the Williamite Wars were the increased significance of Ireland within the British context. It led to the introduction of anti-Catholic legislation across the three kingdoms (it also restricted Dissenters). These shaped an Anglican political outlook for the coming centuries.
Williamite War, Related Links
Military Maps, the Williamite War. Royal Collection Trust.
Drogheda in the Williamite War. Library Ireland.
Further Reading on the British Empire
Making of the United Kingdom
Making of the United Kingdom unit homepage – Glorious Revolution – The British in Ireland, 1688-1691 – Settlement of Ireland – Jacobite Opposition – Glencoe Massacre – Darien Scheme – Act of Union – Migration to the Americas
Economic Consequences of Empire
Economic Consequences of Empire – Unit homepage – Royal African Company – Triangular Trade – Lifting of the RAC monopoly – Plantations – The Slave Economy – Opposition to the Slave Trade in North America – Slave Resistance – East India Company – Expansion of trade in East India – Bank of England – South Sea Bubble Bursts
How did the Empire affect working lives and consumer habits in Britain?
How did the Empire affect British politics and changing ideas?
Common questions about the British Empire
Questions about the British Empire – When did the British Empire start? – When did the British Empire end? – What countries were in the British Empire? – Why did Britain want an empire? – What was life like in the British Empire? – Was the British Empire a force for good or bad? – What is Is perfidious Albion? – How was the British Empire controlled?
The British Empire – Making of the United Kingdom – Economic Consequences of the British Empire– How did the Empire affect Great Britain? – Society changes: Political Thought and the British Empire – Questions about the British Empire – British Empire Teaching Resources